Human Body Parts Name in English with Pictures & Anatomy and Physiology of Human Body
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What are these? An overview of the many parts of the body in English, complete with illustrations and examples. You can improve your English language skills by being familiar with the names of the various parts of the body. Imagine that you are in a place where English is the primary language and that you are in need of medical attention. Where exactly on your body the issue is manifesting itself is going to be one of the most significant aspects for you to discuss with your doctor. Because of this, it is essential for you to commit to memory the English names of the many parts of the body that make up the human body. This will be useful not only in a medical situation, but also in informal speech because there are many English idioms that refer to body parts, and understanding these will help you progress in the language. Not only will this be useful in a medical situation, but it will also be useful in informal speech.
Components Of The Human Body
There are some components of the body that are externally located, known as the external organs, and others that are internally located (internal parts of the body). Let’s investigate the parts of the human body that are found on the outside!
Human Body Parts
Body Parts Names
Parts of the Head
Learn useful vocabulary words for parts of the head.
Parts of the Head Vocabulary
Parts of the Hand
List of hand parts names in English.
Parts of the Hand Names
- Index finger
- Middle finger
- Ring finger
- Little finger
Internal Body Parts
Internal Organs of the Human Body
List of Human Body Organs
- Intestines (large intestine and small intestine)
- Urinary bladder
Parts of the Mouth
Learn human mouth vocabulary in English.
Parts of the Mouth Vocabulary
- Hard palate
- Soft palate
- Gingiva (Gums)
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Different Types of Hairstyle
A hairstyle, hairdo, or haircut refers to the styling of hair, usually on the human scalp.
- Pixie cut
- Medium length
- Short blonde
- Long blonde
- Red hair
- Dyed hair
- Gray hair
- Long wavy hair
- Man bun
Chemical composition of the body
The human body is made up primarily of water and organic substances, including lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids, according to its chemical composition. Both the extracellular fluids of the body, such as blood plasma and lymph, and the cells themselves include water. Interstitial fluid is another type of fluid that the body contains. It plays the role of a solvent, which is absolutely necessary for the chemistry of life to take place. The human body is composed of around 60 percent water when measured by weight.
The human body is made up primarily of lipids, which primarily consist of fats, phospholipids, and steroids. Lipids are major structural components. The body relies on fats as a reserve source of energy, and fat pads also provide the functions of insulation and shock absorption. The membrane that surrounds each cell is made up of a number of different components, the most important of which are phospholipids and the steroid molecule cholesterol.
In addition to this, proteins are an essential component of the body’s skeletal system. Proteins, in addition to lipids, are an essential component of the membrane that surrounds the cell. In addition, proteins can be found in extracellular materials such as hair and nails. Collagen, a fibrous and elastic material that constitutes a significant portion of the skin, bones, tendons, and ligaments of the body, is also present. Additionally, proteins serve a wide variety of physiological purposes throughout the body. Enzymes are cellular proteins that catalyze chemical reactions that are essential for life. Enzymes play a particularly crucial role in this process.
The human body uses carbohydrates primarily as fuels, either in the form of simple sugars that are carried through the circulatory system or in the form of glycogen, a storage substance that is located in the liver and the muscles. There are also trace amounts of carbohydrates present in the cell membranes of human organisms; however, in contrast to plants and the majority of invertebrate animals, human bodies contain very little structural carbohydrates.
The genetic material that makes up the body is made up of nucleic acids. The hereditary master code is stored in the body’s deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which provides the instructions that each cell follows in order to function properly. The qualities that are inherited by an individual human are determined by their DNA, which is passed down from their parents to their children. The instructions that are stored in DNA are carried out with the assistance of ribonucleic acid (RNA), of which there are various different forms.
In addition to water and organic chemicals, the contents of the human body also comprise a wide variety of inorganic minerals. Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, and iron are the most important of these elements. Crystals of calcium-phosphate, which are formed when calcium and phosphorus are united, make up the majority of the body’s skeletal structure. In addition, calcium can be found in the blood and the interstitial fluid as calcium ions, as can salt. On the other hand, there are copious amounts of ions containing phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium found inside the intercellular fluid. Every one of these ions is necessary for the body’s metabolic functions to function properly. Hemoglobin, the pigment of red blood cells that transports oxygen, is where the majority of iron may be found in the body. Other minerals that make up the body are cobalt, copper, iodine, manganese, and zinc. These minerals are present in extremely trace amounts, but they are essential for life.
Organization of the body
The human body and, indeed, all creatures may be broken down into their most fundamental component, the cell. The human body is made up of trillions of cells, each of which is capable of its own development, metabolism, ability to respond to stimuli, and reproduction (with a few notable exceptions). In spite of the fact that there are over 200 distinct cell types in the body, these cells may be broken down into four primary categories. These four fundamental cell types, along with the extracellular materials that surround them, combine to form the fundamental tissues of the human body. These tissues include: (1) epithelial tissues, which cover the body’s surface and line the internal organs, body cavities, and passageways; (2) muscle tissues, which are capable of contraction and form the body’s musculature; (3) nerve tissues, which conduct electrical impulses and make up the nervous system; and (4) connective tissues, which are composed of widely spaced connective fibre (The intercellular matrix of bone and blood, which are considered to be specialised connective tissues, are respectively solid and liquid.)
The function of an organ represents the next degree of organization in the human body. A collection of tissues that together form a separate anatomical and functional unit might be referred to as an organ. As a result, the heart is an organ that is made up of all four of these tissues, and its job is to pump blood throughout the rest of the body. It should come as no surprise that the heart does not perform its functions in a vacuum; rather, it is a component of a system that also includes blood and blood arteries. Therefore, the organization of the organism at the level of the organ system is the most advanced level.
There are nine major organ systems in the body, and within each of these systems are a variety of organs and tissues that cooperate to perform their specific functions. The following chart provides a summary of the primary components and primary functions of each system. (1) The integumentary system, which is comprised of the skin and the structures that are linked with it, serves to defend the body from the invasion of potentially dangerous bacteria and chemicals. It also serves to limit the loss of water from the body. (2) The musculoskeletal system, which is also referred to separately as the muscle system and the skeletal system, is made up of the skeletal muscles and bones (with approximately 206 of the latter present in adults). This system is responsible for the movement of the body as well as the protection of its internal organs. (3) The respiratory system, which is comprised of the breathing tubes, lungs, and the muscles of respiration, draws the oxygen from the air that is required for cellular metabolism, and it also expels the carbon dioxide that is produced as a waste product of such metabolism back into the air. (4) The heart, blood arteries, and other components of the circulatory system work together to pump a transport fluid throughout the body. This transport fluid delivers oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removes waste products such as carbon dioxide and harmful nitrogen compounds. (5) The digestive system, which is made up of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, and intestines, is responsible for breaking down food into substances that can be used (nutrients), which are then absorbed from the blood or lymph; this system is also responsible for eliminating the portion of the food that cannot be used or is in excess as feces. (6) The kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra are all parts of the excretory system, which is responsible for filtering harmful nitrogen compounds and other waste products out of the blood. (7) The sensory organs, the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves make up the nervous system. This system is responsible for transmitting, integrating, and analyzing sensory information, in addition to carrying impulses that cause the proper muscular or glandular responses. (8) The endocrine system, which is made up of glands and tissues that secrete hormones, functions as a chemical communications network in the body, allowing it to coordinate a number of different bodily activities. (9) The reproductive system, which includes the male and female genitalia, is what makes reproduction possible and, as a result, assures that the species will continue to exist.
Basic form and development
The human body has a general shape that may be defined as a cylinder that encloses two tubes and a rod. This pattern is followed by the human body. At the time of birth, this body plan is only visible in the trunk area, which includes the thorax and the abdomen. The plan is most apparent when the individual is still an embryo.
The cylinder is formed by the wall of the body. The two tubes are the neural tube, which is positioned dorsally, and the alimentary canal, which is located ventrally and corresponds to the digestive system (i.e., the spinal cord). In the middle of the tubes is the rod, also known as the notochord in the embryo. The notochord develops into the spinal column before birth. (The back and the front, sometimes known as the belly, of an animal are referred to by the terms dorsal and ventral, respectively.)
Within the embryo, the essential body parts are as follows: (1) the outer enclosing epidermal membrane (in the embryo called ectoderm); (2) the dorsal neural tube; (3) the supporting notochord; (4) the ventral alimentary tube, which becomes the lining of the stomach and intestine (in the embryo called endoderm); (5) the intermediate mass (in the embryo called mesoderm); and (6) a relatively fluid tissue that fills the interspaces Everything that is found in the body originates from one of these six regions of the embryo.
The mesoderm forms a sizeable pad of tissue on each side of the embryo, which extends all the way from the back to the front of the body wall. This pad of tissue is known as the lateral plate mesoderm. It is possible to see through it since it has a gap or cleft in each of its sides. These cavities are located on the right and left sides of the body. They are only temporary in the dorsal region of the body, but they become permanent in the ventral region, where they form the two pleural cavities that are home to the lungs, the peritoneal cavity that houses the abdominal organs, and the pericardial cavity that encases the heart. Additionally, the peritoneal cavity contains the pericardium, which protects the heart. The dorsal portion of the mesoderm divides itself into serial pieces like a row of blocks, with 31 on each side. This process occurs after the dorsal portion of the mesoderm separates from the ventral portion. These mesodermal segments expand in every direction in the direction of the epidermal membrane. They are responsible for the formation of muscles, bones, and the deeper, more leathery layer of the skin. They produce bone arches that cover and protect the spinal cord on the dorsal side, and they cover and protect the alimentary canal and the heart on the ventral side. Therefore, they make up the body wall and the limbs, which are the much more substantial parts of the body. They provide the body wall in the neck and trunk its segmental character, and the spinal cord, following their example, develops segmented in a manner that is proportional to that of the body wall. The ventral mesoderm is not very widespread; it stays close to the alimentary tube and develops into the muscular layer that is continuous throughout the stomach and intestines. Additionally, it is responsible for the formation of the lining of the bodily cavities, including the shiny, slippery, and smooth pleura and peritoneum. The blood arteries and lymph vessels, as well as the heart and the loose cells of connective tissues, are all formed by the mesenchyme.
At an extremely early stage, the ectoderm contributes to the formation of the neural tube itself. It expands to form the brain and extends anteriorly (that is, toward the head) above the open end of the cylinder. The brain is located anteriorly. Because the dorsal mesoderm develops up around it and around the roots of the cranial nerves as a covering, the brain is not in direct touch with the epidermis. This is because the dorsal mesoderm acts as a barrier between the brain and the epidermis. In an adult, the neural tube finishes developing posteriorly, on the opposite side of the first lumbar vertebra.
If the cylindrical body wall is followed headward, it will terminate ventrally as the tongue and dorsally in the skull surrounding the brain, ears, and eyes. This can be determined by following the body wall headward. There is a significant amount of distance between the eyes and the tongue. This is partially filled by a deep depression in the epidermis that runs between them and descends into the body to connect with the alimentary tube (lining of the mouth). The body cavities come to an end at the tailbone (coccyx), which is located posteriorly, where the dorsal and ventral body walls link together.
The alimentary tube extends upward in front of the notochord and projects above the upper section of the body wall (the tongue), as well as in front of and below the brain, in order to join the epidermal depression. Headwards, the alimentary tube joins the epidermal depression. The teeth and the majority of the lining of the mouth are generated from epidermal depression. The pharynx, larynx, trachea, and lungs are formed from the upper end of the alimentary canal. At its distal end, the alimentary canal divides longitudinally into two tubes, known as the anterior and the posterior tubes. When it connects a depression in the ectoderm, the anterior tube develops into the bladder, urethra, and the lining of the vagina in females. In males, it remains as the urethra. The dorsal (posterior) tube transforms into the rectum and comes to an end right in front of the coccyx where it joins with another ectodermal depression (the anus).
Effects of aging
The ageing process causes the human body to go through a number of changes, each of which might occur at a unique moment in time and at a varied pace for different people.
One of the most reliable indicators of age is visible changes in the skin. It dries out, gets more brittle, and loses its flexibility. The deeper pigmented patches that manifest themselves are usually referred to as liver spots, despite the fact that they bear no relation to the liver. As people age, their hair begins to grey and thin. It takes longer for wounds to heal, and certain repairs can take up to five times as long at age 60 as they did at age 10. The number of sensory fibres in the spinal nerves gradually decreases, and the ganglion cells eventually become pigmented and lose some of their cells. As nerve cells and fibres in the auditory apparatus are destroyed, a person’s capacity to hear high notes becomes increasingly limited. The lens in the eye eventually becomes rigid and loses its suppleness.
As we become older, vital organs like the liver and kidneys become less effective and lose some of their mass. After the age of 40, the brain begins to shrink slightly, and after the age of 75, it begins to shrink significantly, particularly in the frontal and occipital lobes. However, this shrinkage is not connected with losses in mental capacity at any point in time. The underlying illness conditions that lead to intellectual loss in the aged, such as Alzheimer disease or cerebrovascular disease, are responsible for these decreases.
As calcium is lost, the bones undergo a process that makes them less dense and more brittle. After the fifth decade, women experience a higher decrease in bone mass than males do for the same reason. When the cartilage that normally covers the ends of bones in joints wears away and, in some places, completely vanishes, this results in bone rubbing against bone, which causes creaking in older joints. A diminution in height may result from pressure being placed on the spinal column. There is a significant degree of individual variation in the decline of muscular strength.
In this condition, the arteries harden and become fibrous. As their elasticity decreases, they develop into stiff tubes more and more frequently. In old age, individuals always have fatty spots in their lining, even if these spots can emerge in younger individuals.
According to the findings of tests conducted in vitro, the cells of the body are pre-programmed to undertake a certain number of cell divisions; after this point, the cells lose their ability to reproduce. Therefore, the human body’s potential longevity, which is around one hundred years, appears to be inscribed within the cells of the body itself.
Change incident to environmental factors
Despite the fact that human anthropoid ancestors were responsible for the establishment of the fundamental structure of the human body, there is clear evidence of human populations’ evolutionary adaptations to a variety of environments. For instance, individuals are known to undergo bodily changes as a result of exposure to conditions such as high altitudes, humid heat, and extreme cold.
People who are short and round, with short arms and legs, flat faces with fat pads over the sinuses, narrow nostrils, and a higher than average layer of body fat are most suited to survive in extremely cold environments. These adaptations provide a minimum surface area in relation to body mass for the purpose of minimizing heat loss, a minimum heat loss in the extremities (which allows for manual dexterity even when exposed to cold and protects against frostbite), and protection for the lungs and the base of the brain against cold air in the nasal passages.
When temperatures are high, the challenge is not to keep one’s body warm but rather to allow it to cool down. Sweating is the normal mechanism by which the body cools itself down when it becomes overheated. In situations of humid heat, on the other hand, the evaporation of perspiration is inhibited to some degree due to the high humidity of the surrounding air, which can lead to overheating. Therefore, the type of person that thrives in hot and humid conditions tends to be tall and slender, as this provides the greatest amount of surface area for the body’s ability to radiate heat. A person who lives in a hot climate typically has little body fat, a broad nose (since the warming of the air in the nasal passages is not desired), and dark skin (which provides a screen against damaging sun radiation). Additionally, people who live in hot climates commonly have a wide nose.
A certain amount of cold adaptation is required for those who live at high elevations, in addition to adaptations for the low air pressure and the subsequently limited oxygen. The general growth in lung tissue is what allows for this adaptation to take place.
In spite of the fact that genetics has a role in determining the general shape and size of the body and its parts, the body is capable of undergoing some modifications as a result of the conditions that are now present. Therefore, a person who moves from a residence at sea level to one that is located at high elevations will experience an increase in the number of red blood cells; this increase helps compensate for the lower quantities of oxygen that are present in the new environment.
In a similar manner, a person with fair skin who relocates to a hot and tropical environment may experience an increase in the amount of pigmentation found in their skin. In these kinds of circumstances, the shape that ultimately emerges is rarely ideal for the new circumstances; however, it is fitted to the demands of the present well enough to keep life going with the minimum amount of energy lost.