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Vitamin D – Uses, Side Effects, Warnings, and More
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Vitamin D is a necessary vitamin that aids in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the body. It also helps to preserve good bone structure.
Vitamin D comes in several forms, including ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) and cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). Fish, eggs, and fortified milk all contain vitamin D. When exposed to sunshine, it is also produced in the skin. Vitamin D is stored in fat during periods of sunlight and subsequently released when sunlight is not available.
Supplemental vitamin D is routinely used to treat and prevent vitamin D insufficiency. People who do not get enough sun and those aged 65 and up are at risk of deficiency. Vitamin D is also used to treat weak and brittle bones, heart disease, asthma, hay fever, and a variety of other illnesses, although there is little scientific evidence to back up many of these claims. In addition, there is no solid evidence to support the use of vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19. However, it is critical to maintaining enough vitamin D levels. This can be accomplished by taking 400-1000 IU of vitamin D per day or spending 15-30 minutes each day in the sun.
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Uses & Effectiveness
Effective in terms of
An uncommon, genetic bone condition characterized by low blood phosphate levels (familial hypophosphatemia). Taking calcitriol or dihydrotachysterol by mouth, together with phosphate supplements, is useful for treating bone diseases in persons with low phosphate levels in the blood.
Parathyroid dysfunction (hypoparathyroidism). In persons with low parathyroid hormone levels, taking particular forms of vitamin D, such as dihydrotachysterol, calcitriol, or ergocalciferol, by mouth is beneficial for boosting calcium blood levels.
Bone deterioration (osteomalacia). This problem can be effectively treated by taking vitamin D3 orally.
A bone condition that arises in kidney disease patients (renal osteodystrophy). In persons with kidney failure, taking calcitriol, a specific type of vitamin D, by mouth helps to regulate low calcium levels and prevent bone loss.
Rickets. Rickets can be prevented and treated by taking vitamin D orally. In persons with kidney failure, calcitriol, a kind of vitamin D, should be administered.
Deficiency of vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation is effective for preventing and treating vitamin D insufficiency.
Likely Effective in terms of
People who take corticosteroid medicines experience bone loss. In those on corticosteroid drugs, taking vitamin D by mouth protects against bone loss. In addition, taking vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium appears to enhance bone density in patients who have already lost bone density due to corticosteroid treatment.
Bones that are weak and brittle (osteoporosis). In adults with osteoporosis, taking vitamin D3 plus calcium appears to help prevent bone loss and fractures.
Psoriasis. Plaque-type psoriasis can be treated by applying vitamin D to the skin in the form of calcitriol, calcipotriene, maxacalcitol, or paricalcitol. Combining vitamin D and corticosteroids appears to be more effective than either vitamin D or corticosteroids alone. However, taking vitamin D orally does not appear to help.
Cavities may benefit from this treatment. In newborns, children, and teenagers, taking vitamin D2 or D3 by oral reduces the risk of cavities by 36% to 49%.
Failure of the heart. In some people, taking vitamin D orally can help reduce their chance of developing heart failure. However, it does not appear to benefit people who already have heart failure.
Bone loss in patients with hyperactive parathyroidism (hyperparathyroidism-related bone loss). In those with hyperparathyroidism, taking vitamin D3 orally appears to lower parathyroid hormone levels and bone loss.
Infection of the lungs. Oral vitamin D supplementation aids in the prevention of respiratory infections in children. However, taking vitamin D during pregnancy appears to have little effect on the risk of these infections in children after birth. It also does not aid in the prevention of infections in adults.
Keeping teeth from falling out (tooth retention). Oral calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation appear to prevent tooth loss in the elderly.
Eczema treatment may be ineffective (atopic dermatitis). Taking vitamin D during pregnancy or administering vitamin D to an infant does not appear to lessen the child’s risk of developing eczema.
Cardiovascular disease People with low vitamin D levels in their blood appear to have a higher risk of getting heart disease. In most people, however, taking a vitamin D supplement does not appear to prevent heart disease, heart attack, stroke, or other significant heart-related events.
Illness that is critical (trauma). Giving vitamin D to persons who have low vitamin D levels and are in the hospital with a serious disease does not increase their chances of survival.
Fractures. Oral vitamin D supplementation does not show to prevent fractures in elderly persons who do not have osteoporosis.
Blood pressure is high. Most patients with high blood pressure do not appear to benefit from taking vitamin D orally. However, it may benefit patients who have extremely low vitamin D levels in their blood.
Muscle power. Oral vitamin D supplementation does not appear to improve muscle strength in older persons.
A mental illness characterized by hallucinations and delusions (psychosis). Taking vitamin D orally does not show to alleviate psychotic symptoms in adults.
Cancer of the prostate. Taking vitamin D orally does not appear to slow cancer progression or death from prostate cancer.
Tuberculosis. Taking vitamin D orally does not assist to cure or lessen the severity of tuberculosis.
There is some interest in using vitamin D for a variety of additional uses, but there isn’t enough trustworthy data to say whether it would be beneficial.
When used orally, vitamin D is most likely safe at the prescribed levels. Unless taken in excess, most people do not experience negative effects from vitamin D. Overdoes of vitamin D can cause fatigue, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and other negative effects.
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Taking vitamin D in quantities of more than 4000 IU (100 mcg) daily over an extended length of time is potentially dangerous and may result in extremely high calcium levels in the blood.
Special Precautions and Warnings
When used orally, vitamin D is most likely safe at the prescribed levels. Unless taken in excess, most people do not experience negative effects from vitamin D. Overdoes of vitamin D can cause fatigue, dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, and other negative effects. Taking vitamin D in quantities of more than 4000 IU (100 mcg) daily over an extended length of time is potentially dangerous and may result in extremely high calcium levels in the blood. Pregnancy and breastfeeding: Vitamin D is probably safe to use during pregnancy and breastfeeding in levels less than 4000 IU per day (100 mcg). Do not exceed the recommended dose unless directed by your healthcare provider. When taken in high doses during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, vitamin D may be harmful. Higher amounts may be harmful to the infant.
Youngsters: When taken at appropriate levels, vitamin D is likely safe in children. Long-term vitamin D supplementation, however, may be hazardous. Infants aged 0-6 months should not exceed 1000 IU (25 mcg) per day. Infants aged 6 to 12 months should not exceed 1500 IU (37.5 mcg) per day. Children aged 1-3 years should not exceed 2500 IU (62.5 mcg) per day. Children aged 4 to 8 years should not exceed 3000 IU (75 mcg) each day. Children aged 9 and up should not consume more than 4000 IU (100 mcg) per day.
Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries): Taking vitamin D may aggravate this condition, especially in persons with renal problems.
A histoplasmosis is a form of fungal infection: Vitamin D may raise calcium levels in histoplasmosis patients. This could result in kidney stones and other complications. Use vitamin D with caution.
High calcium levels in the blood: Taking vitamin D may aggravate this issue.
Hyperparathyroidism (overactive parathyroid gland): Vitamin D may raise calcium levels in persons with hyperparathyroidism. Use vitamin D with caution.
Lymphoma: Vitamin D may raise calcium levels in lymphoma patients. This could result in kidney stones and other complications. Use vitamin D with caution.
Renal disease: Vitamin D may raise calcium levels and increase the risk of “artery hardening” in persons with severe kidney disease. Calcium levels in persons with renal illness should be closely examined.
Sarcoidosis is a condition that causes swelling (inflammation) in body organs, most commonly the lungs or lymph nodes: Vitamin D may raise calcium levels in sarcoidosis patients. This could result in kidney stones and other complications. Use vitamin D with caution.
Tuberculosis: Vitamin D may raise calcium levels in tuberculosis patients. This could result in kidney stones and other complications. Use vitamin D with caution.
Interaction Level: Moderate
Use this combination with caution.
VITAMIN D interacts with aluminum.
Most antacids contain aluminum. Vitamin D can increase the amount of aluminum absorbed by the body. This interaction may be problematic for persons who have kidney illness. Vitamin D should be taken two hours before or four hours after using antacids.
Dovonex (Calcipotriene) interacts with VITAMIN D.
Taking vitamin D with calcipotriene may increase the effects and adverse effects of the drug.
VITAMIN D interacts with digoxin (Lanoxin).
Taking vitamin D alongside digoxin may increase its effects and side effects. Before using vitamin D supplements if you are on digoxin, consult your doctor.
Diltiazem (Cardizem and other similar drugs) interacts with VITAMIN D.
Calcium absorption is aided by vitamin D. Calcium can have an impact on the heart. Diltiazem can also have an effect on the heart. Taking significant doses of vitamin D with diltiazem may reduce its effectiveness.
VITAMIN D interacts with verapamil (Calan and others).
Calcium absorption is aided by vitamin D. Calcium can have an impact on the heart. Verapamil can potentially have an effect on the heart. If you are using verapamil, avoid taking significant doses of vitamin D.
VITAMIN D interacts with water tablets (thiazide diuretics).
Calcium absorption is aided by vitamin D. Some “water tablets” raise calcium levels in the body. Taking a lot of vitamin D together with some “water pills” may result in an excess of calcium in the body. This could have catastrophic consequences, such as kidney difficulties.
VITAMIN D interacts with atorvastatin (Lipitor).
Vitamin D may reduce the amount of atorvastatin absorbed by the body. Taking vitamin D with atorvastatin may reduce its effectiveness.
Medications altered by the liver (substrates of Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4)) interact with VITAMIN D.
The liver changes and breaks down several drugs. Vitamin D may affect how rapidly the liver degrades these drugs. This may alter the effectiveness and negative effects of certain medications.
Vitamin D is a necessary vitamin. Vitamin D is found in foods such as fish, eggs, and fortified milk. The recommended dietary allowance is the amount that should be ingested on a daily basis (RDA). The RDA is 600 IU (15 mcg) per day for those aged 1 to 70, and 800 IU (20 mcg) daily for those aged 71 and over. The RDA for pregnant and nursing women is 600 IU (15 mcg) per day. The RDA for children varies according to age. After sun exposure, the skin also produces vitamin D. Most people should be able to maintain appropriate vitamin D levels by spending 15-30 minutes per day in the sun.
Unless under the care of a healthcare provider, most persons should not exceed 4000 IU per day. Speak with a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate dose for a specific disease.