Leukoplakia: Causes, Symptoms, Management & Treatment

Leukoplakia: Causes, Symptoms, Management & Treatment

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What is leukoplakia?

A disorder known as leukoplakia is characterized by the development of thick, white, or grey patches, most frequently within the mouth. The most prevalent risk factor is smoking. However, this illness can also be brought on by a variety of different irritants.

Mild leukoplakia is typically not harmful and will typically clear up on its own over time. Cases of a more serious nature may be linked to oral cancer, which needs to be treated as soon as possible.

Regular dental care can help prevent recurrences.

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What signs and symptoms are associated with leukoplakia?

Leukoplakia is a condition that can develop in areas of the body that include mucosal tissue, such as the mouth.

Inside of your mouth, you’ll see strange-looking patches if you have this ailment. These patches can have a variety of different looks and could have the following characteristics:

color either white or gray

an elevated surface that is thick and firm.

hairy/fuzzy (hairy leukoplakia only)

red dots (rare)

A possible indicator of cancer is reddened skin. If you notice any patches of red spots, you should make an appointment with your doctor as soon as possible.

It is possible to develop leukoplakia anywhere in your mouth, including your gums, the inside of your cheeks, under or on your tongue, and even on your lips. It could take a few weeks for the patches to form completely. They rarely cause any discomfort.

It is possible for some women to develop leukoplakia not only inside the vagina but also on the exterior of their genitalia in the vulva region. Menopausal women are typically the ones that exhibit this symptom. The illness is not harmful in any way. You need to make an appointment with your primary care physician if you have any concerns about anything more serious.

What are the underlying factors that lead to leukoplakia?

It is not possible to pinpoint what exactly causes leukoplakia. Tobacco usage is the primary causal factor in this association. The most prevalent risk factor is smoking. But another risk factor for leukoplakia is chewing tobacco.

Other factors include the following:

injury to the inside of your cheek, such as from chewing rough, uneven teeth dentures, particularly if they are not well placed inflammatory conditions of the body long-term use of alcohol

There is not enough evidence to show a connection between leukoplakia and the human papillomavirus (HPV), despite the fact that some study indicates there may be a connection between the two.

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Hairy leukoplakia

The Epstein-Barr virus, sometimes known as EBV, is the most common agent responsible for hairy leukoplakia. Once you contract this virus, it will stay dormant in your body for the rest of your life. In most cases, EBV is inactive.

On the other hand, it can bring to the development of hairy leukoplakia patches at any time. Epidemics are more likely to occur in people who have HIV or other immune system disorders.

How is leukoplakia diagnosed?

Oral examinations are the gold standard for diagnosing leukoplakia. Your healthcare professional will be able to determine if the patches are leukoplakia after conducting an oral exam. It is possible that you will confuse the disease with oral thrush.

Mouth yeast infection is most commonly referred to as thrush. Lesions caused by this condition are typically less severe than lesions caused by leukoplakia. It’s possible that they bleed more easily. Patches of leukoplakia, in contrast to oral thrush, cannot be removed by scrubbing.

In order to determine the reason for your spots, your healthcare physician may need to do more testing. They can use this information to suggest a medication that might stop new patches from appearing in the future.

If your healthcare professional is concerned about the appearance of a patch, he or she may perform a biopsy. In order to perform a biopsy, a small sample of tissue will be excised from one or more of your lesions.

After that, they send the sample of tissue out to be diagnosed by a pathologist, who looks for any signs of precancerous or cancerous cells.

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What kinds of treatments are available for patients who have leukoplakia?

The vast majority of patches go better on their own and do not need any treatment. It is essential to abstain from any factors that may have contributed to the development of your leukoplakia, such as smoking. It is possible that your dentist will be able to treat your disease if it is brought on by irritation brought on by a tooth problem.

If the results of a biopsy indicate that the patient has oral cancer, the patch needs to be removed right away. This can help stop the spread of cancer cells throughout the body.

The use of laser therapy, a knife, or a freezing procedure is all viable options for the removal of patches.

In most cases, hairy leukoplakia does not need to be removed because it does not pose a risk of developing into mouth cancer. It is possible that your healthcare professional will prescribe an antiviral medicine to you in order to assist in preventing the growth of the patches. It is also possible to minimize the size of the patch by using topical ointments that contain retinoic acid.

How can leukoplakia be avoided in the first place?

Alterations to one’s lifestyle have the potential to avert many occurrences of leukoplakia:

Put an end to your habit of smoking or chewing tobacco.

Cut back on your use of alcohol.

Consume foods that are high in antioxidants, such as spinach and carrots. Antioxidants have the potential to neutralize irritants, which might help clear up patches.

If you think you could have leukoplakia, you should get in touch with your doctor as soon as possible. They are able to assist you in preventing the patches from becoming even more severe.

Appointments for further care are quite important. If you’ve already had leukoplakia, you have a greater chance of getting it again in the future.

How does the prognosis look for leukoplakia in the long run?

In most instances, leukoplakia does not pose a threat to the patient’s life. Your mouth will not suffer any long-term effects from using the patches. After the irritant that caused the lesion has been eliminated, lesions will typically heal on their own within a few weeks’ time.

On the other hand, if your patch is very painful or seems odd in appearance, your dentist may prescribe testing to rule out the following conditions:

oral cancer


It is important to let your doctor know if you see any abnormal patches in your mouth if you have a history of leukoplakia because it can raise your risk for oral cancer. There is a high degree of overlap between the risk factors for leukoplakia and those for oral cancer. Leukoplakia can coexist with oral cancer in some people.

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